Ordinance of 1785
Later known as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
When parties who would later form the Ohio Land Company expressed an interest in buying 5 million acres of land should the territory be organized on a free basis, the Articles of Confederation Congress took note. In 1787, an ordinance based on earlier recommendations from Thomas Jefferson was enacted. The Northwest Ordinance, as it came to be known, clearly indicated the western lands north of the Ohio River, west of the Alleghenies, and east of the Mississippi River would be settled and become states on a par with existing ones. The ordinance provided that:
- No fewer than three, or more than five, states would be formed
- Admission to the Union would be available when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000
- Civil rights and liberties be guaranteed
- Education be encouraged
- Slavery and involuntary servitude be prohibited.
The impact of this legislation was significant in several ways:
- The ordinance spurred the westward movement of American settlers
- It overturned the colonial idea that newly settled lands would be subservient to established areas
- It established the format for American land policy for years to come
- The law provided the first national limitation upon the expansion of slavery.
Jefferson had originally proposed that slavery be prohibited after 1800. The ordinance of 1787 made the prohibition effective immediately. Nevertheless, fugitive slaves were to be taken prisoner and returned to their owners in any of the thirteen original states.
The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made; The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the Federal debts, contracted, or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of government to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other States; and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district, or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled; The western State, in the said ter ritory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Wabash Rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the territorial line between the United States and Canada; and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The Eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, however, Religion, Morality, and knowledge necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. - Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The groundwork for planning and zoning all lands of the recently established United States of America was being formed between 1783 and 1790, all lands fought for, and taken from Great Britain were placed in a Public Trust held by a newly created "Sovereign People" of whom had the right to settle, claim, and purchase the freely, while the Federal Government would later serve as the protector of all lands thereafter until any American, born on the soil making up all 'territories' bought, conquered, or claimed by the United States filed for their rightful claim to the land.
As per the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Preemptive Act of 1841, and the Homestead Act of 1862 - the United States Congress was beginning to draw up 'sections' of land, allowing Americans to go forth and settle the lands, reserving to the people, the public use of sections of land to be used for Education, Science, Art, and Forestry. The end result was these public lands were to be thereafter known as "Section 16 Public Lands" and forever remain as such in perpetuity.
WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL, came to be the byproduct of that infamous concept plan, adopted before the United States Constitution was ever thought of, but preserved thereafter. And which set America up to allow for, and protect future lands which were to be held and preserved for Education, Science, the Arts, and Forestry.
So, as the City of Sioux Falls wishes to hire, or contract an individual with the intent to establish a Local Art Director, a Public Office, in order to best manage the local art community, thus encouraging, preserving to all, and providing for an awesome collection of Artwork in the area, the former Washington High School, and the land it sits on seems to be the perfect place to establish that newly formed concept. As the mayor, the city council, and the art community desire to proceed forward with this plan, the Washington Pavilion seems like a natural fit.
So as the Current Mayor and City Council, having recently adopted Resolution 119-22, recommending the City Council recommends that the City administration negotiates with the Washington Pavilion Management, Inc. to accomplish the objectives of the Arts Task Force and the City’s Visual Arts Commission, this building seems like the natural setting to establish a local Arts and Visual Public Office to help serve the community, an and to govern over, preserve to all residents, the ability to help educate, create, and preserve local artworks of the area. Under the full authority of the Director of the Washington Pavilion, shall this office be placed.
Even Today, the Washington Pavilion provides thousands of residents the continued commitment to Education, Science, and to Enrich the community by entertaining them in the business of arts and science, and other quality-of-life attributes, all thanks to those who came before us, all of which preserved the tradition of "education" in order to create the United States of America.
This conference area is located on the 4th Floor of the East Wing, or Maine Avenue. This area once was the 4th Floor Art Room (1992). This wall was discovered upon remodeling of the building, and is the exterior of the North Wing, of which was buried behind part of the East Wing. Not shown was the 'hallway' doorway that allowed students to pass through from the east wing to the north wing. It was a very short accessible doorway, if you were taller than 6 ft, you ducked.
The original Assembly Room was located in the North wing prior to 1930 - notice the bright sunlight shining into the room. This room became the upper balcony to the library during the remodeling of the north wing during the 1940s as evidenced by the sunlight shining into the room from the large bay windows that have become the trademark of the building itself.
The original gymnasium was located on the ground floor of the North Wing on what would have been the inside, facing north. Notice the windows in this room. These windows were covered up and hidden from full view during the remodeling phase of the 1930s when the new center addition was built after the demolition of the Central School Building. After 1930, this room was used as a shop classroom, while below this room, in the basement served as the weight room, boys' locker rooms, and coaches offices.
The North Wing as it appeared in 1910 upon the opening of the new school. The South Wing was built next between 1912-1915, then the East Wing thereafter, and finally during the 1920's, after the Central School Building was demolished, the West Wing was completed in time for the 1930's to begin. During the 1930's the North Wing saw a complete remodel phase.
Another view of the Assembly room, notice the east wall and the ornament design, this room remained unchanged for the most part as it became the upper balcony to the library. After 1995, this room was pretty much closed off from the public, becoming office space, while the main floor of the library, which happened to be between 2nd and 3rd Floors, is today the upper Art Gallery. (the lower Art Gallery was retrofitted from the 2nd Floor Hallway which was the widest hallway of the entire school, and served as the business, typing, and computer floor.
Here, we see the floor plan of the First Floor of the old Washington High School. Notice the Gymnasium and Auditorium in the center, while you can see the old Gym to the north alongside, while the east wing would serve as the Administer Wing, the Southwing served as the Cafeteria, the Westwing served as the Shop, Wood, and Technical Education Area, while the Northwing also extended its space for shop and machine education classrooms. All the windows on the first level were enclosed, hidden from public view, until the 1995 transition to the Pavilion years later. The trophy cases that are seen today on the historic 4th Floor Project of the West Wing, would be located directly across from the Principal's Office which was in the North-Eastern most corner of the East Wing, as you enter the North Wing.
“The Whole People must take upon themselves the Education of the Whole People and must be willing to bear the expenses of it. There should not be a district of one Mile Square without a school in it, not founded by a Charitable individual but maintained at the expense of the People themselves; they must be taught to reverence themselves instead of adorning their servants their Generals, Admirals, Bishops and Statesmen. Laws for the liberal education of youth, especially of the lower class of people, are so extremely wise and useful, that, to a humane and generous mind, no expense for this purpose would be thought extravagant.” – John Adams